1976 - 1987
This chapter starts with the first satellites going up, ethernet is developed. And ends with establishing intercontinental internet connections
Dr. Robert M.
Metcalfe develops Ethernet, which allowed coaxial cable to move data extremely
fast. This was a crucial component to the development of LANs.
The packet satellite project went into practical use. SATNET, Atlantic packet Satellite network, was born. This network linked the United States with Europe. Surprisingly, it used INTELSAT satellites that were owned by a consortium of countries and not exclusively the United States government.
UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later.
The Department of Defense began to experiment with the TCP/IP protocol and soon decided to require it for use on ARPANET.
Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an e-mail on 26 March from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern
UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later.
Multiprocessing Pluribus IMPs are deployed
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 111+
THEORYNET created by Larry Landweber at Univ of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed e-mail system over TELENET)
Tymshare spins out Tymnet under pressure from TELENET. Both go on to develop X.25 protocol standard for virtual circuit style packet switching (:vgc:)
First demonstration of ARPANET/SF Bay Packet Radio Net/Atlantic SATNET operation of Internet protocols with BBN-supplied gateways in July (:vgc:)
TCP split into TCP and IP (March)
USENET (the decentralized
news group network) was created by Steve Bellovin, graduate student, and Tom
Truscott, Jim Ellis, programmers at University of North Carolina, and programmers.
It was based on UUCP. First usenet message between Duke and UNC by and Steve
Bellovin. All original groups were under net.* Hierarchy.
The Creation of BITNET, by IBM, "Because its Time Network", introduced the "store and forward" network. It was used for e-mail and listservers
Meeting between Univ. of Wisconsin, DARPA, National Science Foundation (NSF), and computer scientists from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department research computer network (organized by Larry Landweber).
First MUD, MUD1, by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at U of Essex
ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)
Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with DARPA funding. Most communications take place between mobile vans. ARPANET connection via SRI.
On April 12, Kevin MacKenzie e-mails the MsgGroup a suggestion of adding some emotion back into the dry text medium of e-mail, such as -) for indicating a sentence was tongue-in-cheek. Though flamed by many at the time, emoticons became widely used
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 111+
ARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus
First C/30-based IMP at BBN
National Science Foundation created backbone called CSNET 56 Kbps network for institutions without access to ARPANET. Vinton Cerf proposed a plan for an inter-network connection between CSNET and the ARPANET.
BITNET, the "Because It's Time NETwork"
CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built by a collaboration of computer scientists and Univ. of Delaware, Purdue Univ., Univ. of Wisconsin, RAND Corporation and BBN through seed money granted by NSF to provide networking services (especially e-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET. CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network. (:amk,lhl:)
C/30 IMPs predominate the network; first C/30 TIP at SAC
Minitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by France Telecom.
True Names by Vernor Vinge (:pds:)
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 213
Norway leaves network to become an Internet connection via TCP/IP over SATNET; UCL does the same
DCA and ARPA establish the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET.
EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide e-mail and USENET services.
On January 1st,
every machine connected to ARPANET had to use TCP/IP. TCP/IP became the core
Internet protocol and replaced NCP entirely.
The University of Wisconsin created Domain Name System (DNS).(7) This allowed packets to be directed to a domain name, which would be translated by the server database into the corresponding IP number. This made it much easier for people to access other servers, because they no longer had to remember numbers.
No more Honeywell or Pluribus IMPs; TIPs replaced by TACs (terminal access controller)
Stuttgart and Korea get connected
Movement Information Net (MINET) started early in the year in Europe, connected to Internet in Sept
CSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place
ARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET; the latter became integrated with the Defense Data Network created the previous year. 68 of the 113 existing nodes went to MILNET
Desktop workstations come into being, many with Berkeley UNIX (4.2 BSD) which includes IP networking software (:mpc:)
Networking needs switch from having a single, large time sharing computer connected to the Internet at each site, to instead connecting entire local networks
EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established. Very similar to the way BITNET works with a gateway funded by IBM
FidoNet developed by Tom Jennings
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 562
The ARPANET was
divided into two networks: MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was to serve the needs
of the military and ARPANET to support the advanced research component, Department
of Defense continued to support both networks.
Upgrade to CSNET was contracted to MCI. New circuits would be T1 lines,1.5 Mbps which is twenty-five times faster than the old 56 Kbps lines. IBM would provide advanced routers and Merit would manage the network. New network was to be called NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network), and old lines were to remain called CSNET.
JUNET (Japan Unix Network) established using UUCP
JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK using the Colored Book protocols; previously SERCnet
Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET (mod.*)
Neuromancer by William Gibson
Canada begins a one-year effort to network its universities. The NetNorth Network is connected to BITNET in Ithaca from Toronto (:kf1:)
Kremvax message announcing USSR connectivity to USENET
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1024
The National Science Foundation began deploying its new T1 lines, which would be finished by 1988.
Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link (WELL) started
Information Sciences Institute (ISI) at USC is given responsibility for DNS root management by DCA, and SRI for DNS NIC registrations
Symbolics.com is assigned on 15 March to become the first registered domain. Other firsts: cmu.edu, purdue.edu, rice.edu, ucla.edu (April); css.gov (June); mitre.org, .uk (July)
100 years to the day of the last spike being driven on the cross-Canada railroad, the last Canadian university is connected to NetNorth in a one year effort to have coast-to-coast connectivity.
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 1961
The Internet Engineering Task Force or IETF was created to serve as a forum for technical coordination by contractors for DARPA working on ARPANET, US Defense Data Network (DDN), and the Internet core gateway system.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB. First IETF meeting held in January at Linkabit in San Diego
The first Freenet (Cleveland) comes on-line 16 July under the auspices of the Society for Public Access Computing (SoPAC). Later Freenet program management assumed by the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN) in 1989 (:sk2,rab:)
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP.
Mail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allow non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses.
The great USENET name change; moderated newsgroups changed in 1987.
BARRNET (Bay Area Regional Research Network) established using high speed links. Operational in 1987.
New England gets cut off from the Net as AT&T suffers a fiber optics cable break between Newark/NJ and White Plains/NY. Yes, all seven New England ARPANET trunk lines were in the one severed cable. Outage took place between 1:11 and 12:11 EST on 12 December
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 2308
BITNET and CSNET merged to form the Corporation for Research and Educational Networking (CREN), another work of the National Science Foundation.
UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access. Originally an experiment by Rick Adams and Mike O'Dell
First TCP/IP Interpretability Conference (March), name changed in 1988 to INTROP
E-mail link established between Germany and China using CSNET protocols, with the first message from China sent on 20 September. (:wz1:)
Number of BITNET hosts breaks 1,000
Backbones: 50Kbps ARPANET, 56Kbps CSNET, 1.544Mbps (T1) NSFNET, plus satellite and radio connections - Hosts: 28,174
|Last Updated on 19 March 2001||For suggestions please mail the editors|
Footnotes & References
|2||http://www.cbi.umn.edu/darpa/arpanet.htm">25th Anniversary of ARPANET|
|3||http://clavin.music.uiuc.edu/sean/internet_history.html">ARPANET and Beyond|
|4||http://info.isoc.org/guest/zakon/Internet/History/How_the_Internet_came_to_Be">How the Internet Came to Be|
|5||http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/">Hobbes' Internet Timeline by Robert H Zakon.|
|6||http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/newpath/chap2.html">Revolution in the U.S. Information Infrastructure|
|7||http://www.dns.net/dnsrd/">Domain Name System|