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How Things are Measured(1)


Sometimes we loose our way in all those huge numbers. Here is a page to help you remembering.
Mind You! Whilst the rest of the world uses milliard the Americans use: Billion (2)


Definitions

BIT Binary digit, smallest piece of information a computer can process
BYTE 8 bits
MICRON One millionth of a meter, equal to 0.000039 inches
MIPS Millions of instructions per second. An instruction is fetched, decoded, and executed.
REGISTER A storage location used by a computer to do work (I.e. load a number into a register, or add 1 to the value in a register)
HERTZ A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second
TRANSISTOR A device that can transfer or resist electrical current

 

Measures of Quantity

K Kilo = one thousand

1,000

Kb Kilobyte
1024 bytes


2 to the 10th power

1 page of A4 paper can contain approximately 4200 characters (12 points 6 lines per inch)

A 360 K Floppy Disk (5-1/4 inch) = 360,000 bytes or 86 pages

M Mega = one million

1,000,000

Mb Megabyte
1024 x 1024 bytes = 1,048,576 bytes

2 to the 20th power
  • 1.44 Mb Diskette (3.5 inch) = 1,440,000 bytes = 343 pages

  • 120 Mb Diskette (Imation 3.5 inch)= 120,000,000 bytes = 28,571 pages

  • 250 Mb Iomega Zip disk (3.5 inch) = 250,000,000 bytes = 59,524 pages

  • 650 Mb CDROM disk = 650,000,000 bytes = 154,762 pages

G Giga = billion = milliard

1,000,000,000

Gb Gigabyte
1024 x 1024 x 1024 bytes = 1,073,741,824 bytes

2 to the 30th power

DVD disk = 17,000,000,000 bytes or 4,047,619 pages

120 Gb Hard disk = 120,000,000,000 bytes or 28,571,429 pages

T Terra = Trillion

10 to the 12 th power 1,000,000,000,000

Tb Terabytes
1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 bytes = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes

2 to the 40th power

64 DVD's or 261,788,483 pages

P Peta = Quadrillion

10 to the 15th power 1,000,000,000,000,000

Pb Petabytes
Quadrillion bytes
1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 bytes = 1,125,899,906,842,262

2 to the 50th power

268 billion pages; imagine a pack of printer paper (each pack = 5 cm high) then it will be a stack of 26,807,140 km high or 65 times to the moon

Eb Exabyte1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 x 1024 X 1024 bytes = 1,152,921,504,606,850,000

2 to the 60th power

274,506 billion pages, a stack of paper 27,450,512,014 km high or 68,000 times to the moon

Qt

Quintrillion

 

10 to the 18th power 1,000,000,000,000,000,000

Go

Googol

 

Largest number with a "normal" name so far:

10 to the 100th power

1,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Google the search engine's name is derived from this number

 

novemtrigintillion

the largest number?

1, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,
000, 000,000,000,000

 

Graham's number.

Extreme large number that is used in numerical sciences (mathematics) mostly.(4) A number "larger" than the universe...

 

Measures of Time:

Milli

Millisecond
Thousand
1/1,000 of a second

Micro

Microsecond
Million
1/1,000,000 of a second

Nano

Nanosecond
Billionth - Milliard-th
1/1,000,000,000 of a second

Pico

Picosecond
Trillionth
1/1,000,000,000,000 of a second

Fento

Fentosecond
Quadrillionth
1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second

How Components Are Measured:

CPU Word Size Bit
Bus Size Bit
Disk, Tape Capacity Bytes
Memory Overall Capacity
Bytes
SIMM/DIMM/RIMM Bytes
Individual Chips Bits
Transmission Speeds: CPU Clock Speed - MHz
BUS Speed MHz
Network Line/Channel bits per second (bps)
Disk Transfer Rates Bytes per second
Disk Access Time Milliseconds
Memory Access Time Nanoseconds
Machine Cycle Time Nanoseconds
Instruction Execution time Nanoseconds
Transistor Switching Nanosecond, picosecond, fentosecond



Go Back Last Updated on 12 February, 2011 For suggestions  please mail the editors 

 

Footnotes & References