the AT&T - Bell laboratory the TRANSISTOR [TRANsfer
reSISTOR] is invented by three Americans: Walter H. Brattain,
William Shockley en John Bardeen. This earns them a Nobel
prize in 1956.
This transistor preludes the Second Generation and following generations
of computers. Bell Lab's patents the transistor.
Much research is needed to make the transistor commercial viable.