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transistorIn the AT&T - Bell laboratory the TRANSISTOR [TRANsfer reSISTOR] is invented by  three Americans: Walter H. Brattain, William Shockley en John Bardeen. This earns them a Nobel prize in 1956.

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This transistor preludes the Second Generation and following generations of  computers. Bell Lab's patents the transistor.
Much research is needed to make the transistor commercial viable.