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History of Computing in Poland



Timeline Poland

editor Kamil Klimkiewicz

This chapter(5) is a narrative on the highlights of historic computing events in Poland


A group of Polish mathematicians create the worlds first electromechanical code cracker machine: "Bomba" (3)

This machine is designed to crack the German Enigma code. Polish engineers were way ahead of the British who thankfully accepted the sharing of knowledge on the machine's technology



December - Formation of the Mathematical Apparatus Group (GAM - Grupa Aparatow Matematycznych) and is based at the Mathematical Institute in Warsaw. Head - Henryk Graniewski.



Work starts on creating the ultrasonic mercury memory (Romuald Marczynski) the project will be finished in 1953



Establishment of Telecommunication Construction and Radio Broadcasting

Cathedra (43) at the Warsaw University of Technology



Activation of the first analogue machine ARR (Analyzer of Differential Equations) at GAM



Establishment of the Calculation Laboratory at the Institute of Nuclear Research - head Marek Greniewski

The GAM changes its name into ZAM - Zaklad Aparatow Matematycznych - Laboratory of Mathematical Apparatus, of the Polish Academy of Sciences. (Polska Akademia Nauk-PAN) Head - R. Marczynski and later Leon Lukaszewicz.

ZAM computer is designed by PAN ( previously GAM )



First fully digital machine XYZ launched in ZAM PAN

Establishment of Institute of Programs and Calculations in ZAM PAN

Transformation PO IBJ PAN in a Calculation Center (OO) IBJ PAN



Establishment of Institute of Experimental Production of Mathematical Machines by ZAM PAN

Establishment of Elwro Electronic Industrial Plant in Wroclaw (2); head - Marian Tarnkowski

Transformation of OO IBJ PAN into Institute of Applied Mathematics IBJ PAN, head - Mieczyslaw Warmus



Construction of prototype UMC 1 by Warsaw Polytechnic(1)



Formation of Calculations Center at PAN - head - M.Warmus

Activation of Odra 1001, first digital machine built by ZE Elwro.



Production starts of 25 UMS 1 digital machines by Elwro; production continued until 1964

Renaming the ZAM into Institute of Mathematical Machines (IMM) PAN.

Formation of the Numerical Methods Department (KMN) at Wroclaw University

Installation of the English computer - Elliott 803. At Wroclav University, head - Stefan Paszkowski.

Procurement of computer Ural 2 for a CO PAN

ZPDMM is renamed into Experimental Unit (ZD) IMM PAN

Establishment in Institute of Mathematics at the Wroclaw(2) University Cathedra(4) of Numeric Methods (KMN), where an English computer Elliott 803 was installed, head of KMN - stefan Paszkowski

Establishment of specialized mathematical machines at the Department of Communication Wroclaw(2) Polytechnic


Establishment at the Warsaw University of Technology Cathedra(4) of Mathematical Machines Construction and Experimental Unit in this cathedra from Cathedra of Communication and Radio broadcasting constructions and

Establishment at the Warsaw University of Technology of Cathedra of Electronics and Technology - head A. Kilinski

Establishment in Wroclaw Polytechnic Cathedra of Digital Machines Construction. Head - Jerzy Bromirski



Establishment of Numeric Calculation Unit at the Warsaw University, where the Danish computer GIER is installed , head Stanislaw Turski.



Establishment of ZETO ( Zakladów Elektronicznej Techniki Obliczeniowej) in all larger cities in Poland

Activation of the UMC 10 machine, a transistorized version of UMC 1



Serial production of Odra 1204 starts at the ZE Elwro factories

An agreement is signed between the firms ICL and Elwro for the production of compatible ICL 1904 machines at the Elwro plant



Preparations starts at the Elwro factory for the production of machines with an uniform system, based on IBM's approach for standardization.



Establishment of National Informatics and Informatics Unification Office



The National Information System is starting its activities



Establishment of the Institute of Informatics at Warsaw University,
Wroclaw University and Warsaw University of Technology


Most important machines and inventions


Hardware Type Country Date Reference
UMC 1 PL 1960
ZAM 21 PL 1961
ZAM 2-BETA PL 1961
UMC 10 PL 1963
ZAM 3 PL 1963
KAR 65 PL 1965
MERA K202 PL 1971
ES 1032 PL 1972
ES 1040 PL / GRD 1972
ODRA 1001
ODRA 1002
ODRA 1003
ODRA 1013
ODRA 1204
ODRA 1304
ODRA 1305
ODRA 1325




Stern, Abraham; (1769 - 1842)
Lukasiewicz, Jan; (1876-1956)
Lukasiewicz, Leon;
Marczynski, Romuald;
Paszkowski, Stefan;
Bromirsky, Jerzy


Software developments








ZE Elwro


Other interesting developments






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Last Updated on September 27, 2005 For suggestions please mail the editor in chief 

Footnotes & References