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Before Copernicus

People regarded the world as the center of the universe, everything revolved around the world. And people were masters of the universe. This train of thought is called the: geocentric system.
It was first systematized by Aristotle and later elaborated by Ptolemy in the 2nd century. It was a cosmological system that placed the Earth at the center of the universe, with the heavenly bodies circling around it. Ptolemy revealed that each planet traveled on the circumference of a small circle (epicycle) whose center traveled along a large circular path (deferent) about the Earth at a steady speed. Thus Ptolemy was able to explain the motions of the heavenly bodies about the Earth more effectively than his predecessors. As a result, Ptolemy's work dominated the field of astronomy until Copernicus brought forth his idea of heliocentrism.

 

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