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NCR Corporation

Dayton USA 1884

editor: J.F. van Hanswijk Pennink

retired from NCR


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7 North Main Street, Dayton, Ohio 45402, USA
Telephone: 937.228.6271 Fax: 937.331.7160
Hours: 10:00 am - 4:30 pm (Tuesday through Friday); Noon - 4:00 pm (Saturday)


jhon h patterson(5)


Company Tree

Ascendant Companies
Descendent Companies
Assimilations & Mergers
Year Company Comments Company Comments Company Comments
1884 NCR          
1976         Data Pathing Inc., An important producer of data / factory entry and processing systems.
1978         Quantor Corporation to gain computer output microfiche capabilities
1979         Comten, Inc. a leading force in data communications technology in communicating with IBM computers
1980         Applied Digital Data Systems, Inc. (ADDS) A leading supplier of high-quality video display computer terminals.


1991 AT&T NCR is acquired by AT&T.
1992         Teradata merged with AT&T on February 28
1995     1995
split off, NCR is independant again    
1997 NCR       Dataworks inc. A software firm that develops software for financial markets
1998         Stirling Douglas Group, Inc. (SDG) A software firm and leading provider of merchandise management applications.

Company Brief

John H. Patterson founds the National Cash Register Company, maker of the first mechanical cash registers.


First company to commercialize cash registers




john h patterson

John H. Patterson founds the National Cash Register Company, maker of the first mechanical cash registers.

The first office, with 13 employees, is located in the Callahan Power Building, in Dayton, Ohio.(6)


Englishman, J. W. Allison observes the self-adding cash register at a Chicago exhibition.

He learns that the machine can be adapted for English currency. He is so impressed, that he becomes NCR's first international agent, based in Liverpool, UK.


Mid-to-late 1880s --

Innovative sales techniques are instituted.

Guaranteed sales territories, quota and point systems, sales conventions, and conservative dress. Also, advertising, direct-mail, and publications for agents, customers and employees are instituted on a massive scale.



The first company-owned factory is established on the Patterson farm land on the south side of Dayton.



Sales agents memorizes the NCR Primer, a book containing a sales presentation with proven results.

ncr schoolclass

Formal sales classes are established.



Employee benefit programs begin with hot lunches, a "glass" factory to improve lighting and ventilation, baths, showers, exercise programs, social and professional clubs, and many more.



NCR suggestion system is established to encourage employee ideas for improving products and operations.

Gold was awarded to suggestion winners.


Mid 1890s

"THINK!" signs are erected in factory buildings, sales offices, and club rooms.



First international convention for overseas sales agents is held.



The Class 35 is produced with a total register and printer. cash register NCR 35
(photo courtesy JFHP)



A tent camp is set up in Sugar Camp at Dayton, Ohio (seat of NCR) to train sales persons, the so called“Canvas University”


ncr logo 1903

Charles F. Kettering designs the first cash register powered by an electric motor.

Within a few years, he will develop the Class 1000 register which will be in production for 40 years.

Charles F. Kettering also develops the O. K. Telephone Credit Authorization system for verifying credit in department stores.


The Class 500 was the most complex and ornate register manufactured by National during this time period.(11)

ncr class 500
NCR Class 500
This model was found in a wine shop near the covered market in the Ramblas Barcelona 2006 (a shop worth visiting, very good wine selection)

It could keep track of up to nine separate totals, which meant that it could be used by nine different clerks or keep track of nine separate departments at the same time. The Class 500 is often found on stands that hold more than one cash drawer to take advantage of its power. It was also the most expensive machine produced at the time, with prices when new in 1909 ranging from $315 to $555, possibly much more if a floor stand or other options were added. The 1909 National Cash Register Catalog describes it as follows:

“Class 500 registers are furnished with five rows of keys; registering capacity, 1 cent to $99.99 and one row of special keys, and with six rows of keys, registering capacity, 1 cent to $999.99, and one row of special keys.



The One millionth cash register is sold in NCR's 27th year of business.



NCR saves many lives during the great flood in Dayton.

John Patterson orders flat-bottom boats made by company carpenters; a tent city is erected for the homeless; and food and medical care are dispensed. Patterson successfully heads a million-dollar relief fund.

Class 500 is a cash register with 9 cash drawers and electrically driven.

cash register class 500
(photo courtesy JFHP)

It has 10 totals and a printer. This machine can be used by 9 different employees. Thus curbing fraud, errors and possible misunderstandings.



The Class 2000 accounting machine with 30 totalizers is introduced.

In different models the class 2000 will be marketed up to 1973, making the 2000 the longest-lived and one of the most successful machines of any NCR product. Different models will be constructed, e.g. models for accounting jobs, savings accounts, salary- and hotel administration.

ncr cash register class 2000 1921

(photo courtesy JFHP)


Frederick Beck Patterson, John Patterson's son, becomes president, and his father, chairman. (a year before the founder's death in 1922)



The Class 2000 bank machine is introduced, an electronic version called: "Postronic".

This machine is at once very successful since it gave perfect control over the savings account management of a bank. The machine has over 20,000 parts and is assembled by hand.

John Patterson founder of NCR dies after have lead the company since 1884.

John Patterson


The Class 2000 machine is modified for accounting in hotels.



a stock certificate from 1997

NCR becomes publicly owned and is incorporated in the State of Maryland, USA.



NCR buys the Ellis Adding Typewriter Company producer of the only machine that combined a typewriter with a adding machine in one unit.

A detailed report on accounting is now possible. This concept will be improved upon by NCR making it the most flexible accounting machine in existence in the pre-electronic era (ref: NCR Class 31, 32, 33 )

ncr class 32 1928
NCR class 32 (photo courtesy JFHP)


The Class 3000 accounting machine is developed from the Ellis model having a keyboard to input a narrative description of entries, as well as adding, subtracting and printing features.

grace kelly ncr class 3000 1929
Grace Kelly (princes of Monaco) demonstrates a NCR class 3000
(photo courtesy JFHP)



Colonel Edward A. Deeds returns to NCR to become chairman of the board.

He left the company in 1915 to help manage Delco, a company founded by Charles Kettering. He also co-founds the Wright Airplane Company with Orville Wright and others.



NCR's Golden Jubilee is celebrated with a "gold prospecting" sales contest at worldwide offices.



Seven NCR employees form a credit union with $70 capital.

The Class 2000 is modified to process and print pay checks in one single operation.

This will make it the most advanced electro-mechanical accounting machine ever.


The first electronics research begin in the NCR Electrical Department. The research team will produce a counting device using vacuum tubes by 1942.



Construction on Old River recreational park, near the Dayton headquarters, begins.



ncr building 26
NCR building 26 ( courtesy daytoncodebreakers.org)

 NCR takes part in the war efforts during WWII and establishes a laboratory that produces the American version of the Bombe.

A machine that will break the German Enigma Code. The research team in NCR building #26 is headed by Joseph R. Desch (1907 - 1987).

The project is seriously veiled with secrecy, classified only second after the Manhattan project - the atomic bombe, and even decades after the war engineers did not talk about this project. Engineers participating in this project have, on some level, exchange of information with the British - similar - project. Both projects are not on even "footage" but exchange of engineers between the projects happen occasionally. The Bombe is designed to break both the German (Enigma) and Japanese codes (Purple) and helped to shorten the War. It is the first electro mechanical machine to use vacuum tubes, the ENIAC is the second.

A detailed story can be found here: details and an entire website dedicated to this event is here: codebreakers



Adding machines expand the product line with the purchase of the Allan-Wales Adding Machine Corporation in Ithaca, New York.



The first annual meeting of the NCR 25-year Club is held in Dayton.


Late 1940s

NCR engineers create magnetic memory drums attached to accounting machines, various electronic digital displays and indicators, and signature verification systems using video signals.


The Class 31 accounting machine is introduced.

This machine is very versatile and can be put to service in all accounting fields. Other versions are the Class 32 en 33.


NCR acquires Computer Research Corporation (CRC), of Hawthorne, California, which produces a line of digital computers with applications in aviation. With this acquisition NCR enters the computer era.



NCR establishes the Electronics Division to continue to pursue electronic applications for business machines.



NCR Country Club opens in Dayton with two golf courses and a clubhouse.

NCR carbonless paper is introduced.



NCR's Post-Tronic, the first product with automated features, is unveiled to the banking industry.



Stanley C. Allyn becomes chairman of the board.

NCR Post Tronic machine

NCR introduces the very successful Post Tronic bookkeeping machine.

With the revenues it is possible for NCR to invest in the development of computers



Introduction of the NCR 304 business computer.

The first commercial available computer with a solid state processor.


Typical NCR 304 installation

The NCR 304 system, the industry's first all-transistorized, or solid-state computer for general business is marketed.



Introduction of the NCR 315, a general purpose business computer.

It is the first computer with the ability to upgrade to a higher version in this series.

The NCR 390 is the first low-cost, mass-marketed computer.

It uses punched tape recorders for original data entry.


The 420 optical scanner system is introduced.

It reads the entered data from cash register journals and accounting machine tapes.

The NCR 315 computer with random-access memory, and later, all-thin-film rod memory, is introduced.



Early 1960s

Research into silicon-chip technology begins.



Robert S. Oelman becomes chairman of the board.

ncr logo 1962




ncr_world exposition
World exhibition in New York (USA)
click on picture for larger image



PCMI Microform Systems is established.



The NCR 615 Century series is introduced; the 5000th Century system was installed in 1974.

It is the first low cost electronic data processing system to put programs, operating software and data on a hard disk.


MOS/LSI circuitry for computer terminals is announced.

In England NCR did a mega job by changing all cashiers from the 12 (duodecimal) to the decimal monetary system.

The picture shows a converted accounting machine being delivered to a client. (see picture below the men in white coats)

arrival of converted machine NVR
the arrival of a converted machine (photo courtesy JFHP)


Microelectronics Division is established.

Encapsulation technology is announced.


NCR changes its logo

ncr logo 1971



William S. Anderson becomes president and will be named chief executive officer in 1973.

The 10-millionth machine, the NCR 280, is manufactured.



Anderson becomes chairman of the board.

This machine, NCR 299, is built in the NCR factories in Augsburg, Germany.

ncr 299 tabulator 1974
NCR 299 tabulator (ca. 1974's) picture courtesy JFHP

It has a selectric type of letter ball, a line width of 57 cm, a core memory of 8k for a stored program and 8k for data. A few machines in working order still exists, one at the computermuseum in the Hague Netherlands.

The NCR company changes its name to NCR Corporation.


Charles E. Exley, Jr., becomes president.

New World Headquarters in Dayton is dedicated.

The NCR Criterion series is announced.

NCR acquires Data Pathing Inc. An important producer of data / factory entry and processing systems.



front of the Delftse bible microfiche

back of the Delftse bible microfiche

NCR wanted to make a showcase example of their microfiche technology and put a large part of the christian bible's old testament on one single microfiche.

This technology will play an important role in archiving and distribution of computer output on a low cost basis. The micro fiche technology will be in use until late in the 1990's, a long time for any technology.


NCR acquires Quantor Corporation to gain computer output microfiche capabilities.

Quator is renamed to NCR Micrograhics System Division.

NCR becomes the only computer system company with computer output to microfiches



NCR acquires Comten, Inc., a leading force in data communications technology in communicating with IBM computers.

This made NCR leading in data communication technology.



NCR acquires Applied Digital Data Systems, Inc. (ADDS), a leading supplier of high-quality video display computer terminals.



NCR enters the word processing market with the WorkSaver product line.

An OEM Systems Division is established and NCR's Microelectronics Division entered the merchant market for semiconductors.



The first NCR Tower super microcomputer system is launched.

This establishes NCR as a pioneer in bringing industry standards and open systems architecture to the computer market. The tower uses UNIX as the operating system


Charles E. Exley, Jr. is named chief executive officer.

NCR's first personal computer is released.

NCR 9300, the industry's first 32-bit VLSI mainframe, is released.



NCR celebrates its 100th anniversary in the information processing systems industry.

Charles E. Exley, Jr. becomes chairman and president when William S. Anderson retires.



A Personal Computer Division is formed and several new, industry-compatible personal computer models are introduced.

A 32-bit model is added to the UNIX®-based NCR TOWER family.

A new generation of self-service automated teller machines is introduced.



Product introductions include:



A company-wide program make NCR people aware of the company's mission to "create value for stakeholders."

Product introductions include:



Gilbert P. Williamson is named president and Charles E. Exley, Jr. assumes the title of chairman and chief executive officer.

Product introductions include:



NCR announced its long-term product direction: Open, Cooperative Computing.

Product introductions include:

American Telephone & Telegraph Company announced plans to acquire NCR




NCR is acquired by AT&T. Not without resistance by NCR itself.

AT&T and NCR sign a definitive merger agreement in May, and the merger completed on September 19.

Product introductions include:

Charles E. Exley retired and Gilbert P. Williamson assume the position of chairman and chief executive officer. R. Elton White is named president.


Teradata merge with AT&T on February 28 and is functionally integrated into NCR.

Groundbreaking on a new development facility for massively parallel computing takes place in San Diego.

NCR and AT&T recognize the one-year anniversary of a successful high-tech merger.

Democratic National Convention delegates vote using NCR 7054 Integrated Touch Screen Systems.

Product introductions include:

NCR Teradata becomes the world's most proven and powerful database for data warehousing.

The 7054 ITS is discontinued.

The replacement is the Model 7450 terminal/workstation, which also accepts the Compris solution.



NCR name changed to AT&T Global Information Solutions (GIS).


Lars Nyberg appointed chairman and CEO of AT&T GIS.(4)

On September 20, AT&T announces that it is restructuring into three separate companies.

A services company, retaining the AT&T name; a products and systems company (later named Lucent Technologies) and a computer company AT&T GIS (which reassumed the NCR name). Lucent is spun off in October 1996, and NCR in December, 1996.(3)

att GIS changes back into NCR


ncr logo 1996

December 31, AT&T GIS changed its name back to NCR Corporation in anticipation of being spun-off to AT&T shareholders by January 1997, as an independent, publicly-traded company.

NCR At A Glance

Revenues: $6.963 billion
Operating Income: $75 million
Net Loss Per Share: $1.07
Research & Development Expenses: $378 million
Weighted Average Shares Outstanding: 101.4 million
Cash and Short-Term Investments: $1.203 billion
Debt: $76 million
U.S Revenues as % of Total Revenues: 43.7 %
Stock Exchange Listing and Symbol: New York Stock Exchange, 'NCR'
Number of Employees: 38,600
Number of Shareholders: 2.5 million
Locations: 1,100 offices
development and manufacturing 30 development and manufacturing facilities in
130 countries throughout the Americas, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia and
Pacific regions
Markets Top International Markets: Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, France, and
Prime customers Wal-Mart, JC Penney, Chase Manhattan Bank, NatWest, Canadian
Imperial Bank of Commerce, USWest, AT&T, Southern New England Telephone,
Reuters, BP Oil Europe, Qantas Airways
Revenues By Product Line: Retail Products: $428 million
Financial Products: $1.007 billion
Computer Products: $1.398 billion
PC/Entry Level Server Products: $503 million
Systemedia Products: $551 million
Customer Support Services: $2.238 billion
Professional Services: $616 million
Data Services: $123 million
Other: $99 million
Total Revenues: $6.963 billion



Signaling its evolution from a hardware-only company to a full solutions provider.

NCR purchases Compris Technologies, Inc., a leading provider of store automation and management software for the food-service industry, and purchases Dataworks, a company that develops check-processing software. (Dayton Business Journal - November 12, 1997)

dataworks incNCR buys Dataworks Inc. in a move to grow its global imaging and item processing business.

Dataworks is a financial software developer. Dataworks, a privately held company in San Antonio - Texas, develops image, information storage, retrieval and archiving software for the financial industry. Dataworks' products are used by more than 1,000 customers throughout the United States and in 15 major international markets. It employs 60 persons in the United States.



NCR finalized the transfer and sale of their computer hardware manufacturing assets to Solectron, confirming NCR's commitment to concentrate on the market-differentiated software and services components of their solutions portfolios.

NCR sold its TOP END middle ware software to BEA Systems in a move to expand NCR's application software offerings while moving away from horizontal general purpose computer software. (4)

NCR purchased 50 percent of Stirling Douglas Group, Inc. (SDG), a privately-held software firm and leading provider of merchandise management applications.



Leading e-businesses such as Travelocity.com, E*Trade and Microstrategy implemented NCR's Teradata warehouse solutions as the foundation of their sophisticated customer-focused offerings and marketing initiatives. (4)

Division's main Scottish facility is in Dundee, where the company designs, develops, manufactures and markets state-of-the-art self-service solutions.

NCR has a tradition of industry knowledge and expertise, and world-leading hardware technology. Self-service is no longer confined to the dispensing of cash, but ranges from cheque imaging to e-commerce and beyond into m-commerce. On the leading edge of technology, are our machines with personality, which can recognise customers from the unique pattern of the iris and respond to transaction requests by speech recognition and synthesis.NCR Corporation is a $7 billion global market leader active in 130 countries, and we're furthering our commitment in Scotland with a new R&D facility in Dundee, opening in 2001. (1)


NCR billboard in Yemen photo courtesy JFHP

NCR acquires CRM provider Ceres Integrated Solutions and services company 4Front Technologies, deepening NCR's solutions offerings in key markets for CRM.


Mark Hurd appointed CEO of NCR.

NCR Major Products

AT&T 6386 series

AT&T 3B2 (including 3B2/310, 3B2/400, 3B2/500, 3B2/522, 3B2/600,
3B2/1000-70, 3B2/1000-80)

AT&T 3B5

AT&T 3B15

AT&T 3B20 FP, 3B20S, 3B20A

AT&T 3B4000 (1-4 CPUs)

AT&T System 7000 (7020, 7040, 7080, 7080R2, 7300)

AT&T StarServer FT

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Footnotes & References


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