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This bibliography reflects the literature the editors have used to compile part of the History of Computing project. Also see: magazines index. Where cited references are placed wherever possible. We apologize in advance for omissions. If you do find omissions please mail the editors

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ZX 81 elektronica projecten, 20 eenvoudige projecten voor de zelfbouw; 1984; Kluwer Technische Boeken bv; Deventer; ISBN 90 201 1640 1; translated from: 20 Simple electronic projects for the ZX 81 and other computers

AHL, David H.

Creative Computing Volume 1; Creative Computing Press; USA; 1976; ISBN 0-916688-01-1

AKERA, Atsushi; Nebeker, Frederik

An authorative History of Modern Computing; Oxford University press, 198 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA, 2002; ISBN 0-19-514025-7, pp228

This book is very useful for the average person to read up on the beginnings of the computer industry and who played a part in it. Various well known writers from the history of computing field have contributed essays that are short and easy to read. The strong part of this book is exactly that: a good start. For serious reading browse Ifrah's book.


Collectie Nederland Oude Computers (Collection Netherlands Old Computers)

AMSTEL, J. J. van

Voortgezet Programmeren: het ontwerpen van datastructuren en algoritmen; 1985; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90 6233 236 6

Programmeren: het ontwerpen van algoritmen - met Pascal; 1984; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90-6233-138-6

AMSTEL, J. J. van; POIRTERS, J. A. A. M.

Aspecten van programmeertalen; 1982; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90 6233 092 4

ASPRAY, William ed.

Computing Before Computers; 1990; IOWA State University Press; Iowa, Ames, 50010; USA; ISBN 0 8138 0047 1


De computer uw vriend; Aartselaar; Harderwijk: Deltas; 1984; ISBN 90-243-3051-3


LPR, An Integrated Program and Data Management System for Engineering Applications; 1977

BEGUIN, Albert

Blaise Pascal; 1992; Editions du Seuil; Paris; ISBN 3 499 50026 4


The advent of the Algorithm; 2000; Hartcourt Inc, 6277 Sea Harbor dr, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777, USA; ISBN 0-15-601391-6

An most boring book, written in Victorian say Rococo style: many fringes and elaborate wording. Seeing through that it is an in depth narrative on how the Algorithm came about and who influenced the becoming of the Algorithm.

weaving the web

Weaving the Web, 1999 Orion Business Books, Orion House, 5 Upper st Martin's Lane London WC2H 8EA, UK, ISBN 0 75282 0980 7; 244pp hard cover

The first few chapters are a narration on how the WWW came into being, the last chapters are a rather boring "gospel" on Berners-Lee ideas and philosophy and attempts to secure his ideas via various organizations. But certainly a book of historical value without doubt.


Britain's best kept secret; Bletchley Park trust suite 8, Denbigh House, Denbigh Road, Bletchley, Milton Keynes, MK1 1YP, UK; 0908 640404 fax 0908 371751

BLOHM, Hans; BEER, Stafford; SUZUKI, David;

From Pebbles to Computer, The Thread; 1986; Oxford University Press, Toronto; ISBN 0-19-540536-6

BOER, Jaap de

De geschiedenis van de PC; October 1994 (Dutch); Wittebrem 40, 3068TM Rotterdam, Netherlands, Private publication;


Kunstmatige Intelligentie, verwachtingen en werkelijkheid; 1984; InterEditions; Paris; ISBN 90-6789-050-2; translated from L'intelligence artificielle

BOWERS, Brian;

Michael Farraday and the modern world; 1991; EPA press, Wendens Ambo, UK; ISBN 0-9517362-0-5; 60pp


The home computer book; 1984; Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd; The Old Piano Factory; 43 Gloucester Crescent; London NW1; ISBN 0 7156 1848 2


PC Techniek; May 1989; Waltman; ISBN 90 212 3127 1


Programmeren deel 1: Inleiding; 1977; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90 6233 023 1


Het computerboek voor iedereen; 1983; Bantam Books, Inc.; 666 Fifth Avenue; New York; N.Y. 10103; translated from: The Friendly Computer Book: A Simple Guide for Adults

BROY, Manfred; DENERT, Ernst (editors)

Software pioneers. Contributions to Software Engineering, sd&m conference 2001; Springer Verlag Berlin 2002; ISBN 3-540-43081-4; 738pp

The book is based on the conference proceedings in which software pioneers presented their assessment of their past adventures in software development; with the book are 4 DVD's which gives a verbose impression of the conference. The book is enhanced with many historical papers and some additional material provided by the pioneers themselves.
The DVD's contain a full video of the speeches of the pioneers but the publisher did not anticipate on the possibilities of what DVD's could do in the sense of multi media. The recordings are quite static and the video wall in the conference room showing their slide shows is hardly in the picture at all.


Prolog, een inleiding; 1985; MacMillan; London; ISBN 90-6233-221-8; translated from: Prolog programming and applications

BYERS, Robert A.

Everyman's Database Primer Featuring dBase III Plus; 1986; Ashton-Tate Publishing Group; 20101 Hamilton Avenue; Torrance; California 90502-1319; ISBN 0-912677-85-6


Sinclair ZX Spectrum microdrive and interface 1 manual: Sinclair ZX Interface 1 and ZX microdrive; 1983; Sinclair Research Limited; 25 Willes Road; Cambridge CB1 2AQ; England


Development and structure of the international software industry, 1950 - 1990; 1995; Business and Economy History vol 24 no. 2;Business History Conference; ISSN: 0849-6825

From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog : A History of the Software Industry, 2004; M.I.T. press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02142, http://mitpress.mit.edu; ISBN 0-262-53262-X (pb); 372pp

This book describes the beginnings of professional software development from the early 50's up to 2000. Not intended for the casual reader though. Ample notes a reasonable index and well defined bibliography. Campbell does not forget the video gaming industry and writes a few pages about it.

CAP Gemini Publishing

Technieken voor Systeemontwerp en Beschrijving; 1989; CAP Gemini Publishing/ Pandata bv; Rijswijk; ISBN 90-71996-18-2

SDM Samenvatting van de system development methodology; 1988; Pandata; Rijswijk; ISBN 90 71996 07 7

CHABRIS, Christopher F.;

Artificial intelligence and Turbo Pascal; Dow Jones-Irwin, Homewood Ill. 60430; plus disk: ISBN 0-87094-963-2; book only ISBN 1-55623-074-5; 314pp

CHESWICK, William R.; BELLOVIN, Steven M.

Firewalls and Internet Security ; 1994; AT&T Bell laboratories / Addison Wesley; ISBN 0-201-63357-4; 306pp


Reckoners, The prehistory of the digital Computer, from relays to the stored program concept, 1935-1945; 1983; Greenwood Press; Westport, Connecticut, USA; ISBN 0 313 23382 9

Beyond the limits, flight enters the computer age ; 1989; MIT press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; ISBN 0 262 03143 4

A history of modern computing; 1998-2000; MIT press, Cambridge, Massachusetts USA, ISBN 0-262-53169-0

A very good narration of computing history of the period 1945 - 1995. Once you get used to Ceruzzi's style it reads like a novel. But this is not a book for novices in the field. Cerruzi assumes a reasonable basic knowledge of computing and its machinations.

Read this book in combination with Ifrah's book: "the universal history of computing" the two complement each other perfectly.


Testframe, een praktische handleiding bij het testen van informatiesystemen; 1999; Ten Hagen & Stam Uitgevers; Den Haag; ISBN 90 76304 67 X (A practical guide for testing information systems)

A tutorial on how to test software in particular, and in a wider perspective (information)systems


De la machine a calculer de Pascal a l'ordinateur; 23 September 1990; CNAM; ISBN 2-908207-07-9

COCHIUS, F. F. D.; et al

Moderne Computers en hun toepassingen: deel 1 software/ programmeren/ gegevensbestanden/ applicaties; 1972; N.V. Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken; Eindhoven; ISBN 90 267 0356 2

Moderne Computers en Hun toepassingen: deel 2 hardware/ operating support/ programming support/ data support; 1972; NV Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken; Eindhoven; ISBN 90 267 0389 9


Codasyl and Cobol, data bade reports 1981; 1984; Kluwer; Deventer; ISBN 90 267 0940 4


People and Computers, Milestones of a Revolution, A permanent exhibit catalogue at the computer museum of Boston USA; 1992; The Computer Museum, 300 Congress street, Boston, Massachusetts, 02210; USA;pp 617 426 2800 fax 617 426 2943


The Hamlyn Dictionary of Computing; 1989; The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited; ISBN 0 600 56521 1

COOPER, Doug; CLANCY, Michael

Oh! Pascal! Second Edition; 1985; W. W. Norton & Company, Inc; USA; ISBN 0 393 95445-5

CORTADA, James W.;

A bibliographic guide to the history of computing,computers, and the information processing industry. 1990; Ref QA76.17.C67x 1990

This bibliography is an excellent place to begin searching for materials on specific aspects of the history of computer science. It lists books, pamphlets, magazine articles and journal articles on various topics in the history of computer science.


Veen's Computer Boek;1983; Penguin Books; Harmondsworth; ISBN 90-204-3776-3; translated from: The Penguin Computing Book


Informatica in de praktijk: Informatietransport; 1990; Samson Bedrijfsinformatie BV; Alphen aan den Rijn; ISBN 90 14 04540 9


Programming Languages; Digital pdp-8 handbook series


HE1, ch 6, pg 22-32; ch 19-23, Dirksen Elektronische Opleidingen   (Dutch)


The bradybook of turbo pascal ; a complete guide to building applications; 1988; Brady, new york, Prentice Hall ISBN 0-13-080599-8

EGMONT, Sjef van;

Het Getal; Compu Nieuwslijn Commodore Club Delftpp 16-21, April 1990 (Dutch)


X1; Stadhoudersplantsoen 214; Postbus 207; Den Haag

ENDE, Jan van den

Knopen, kaarten en chips, Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Voorburg, 1991, private publication

History of automation at the Cencus Buro in the Netherlands, a private publication

EVANS, Christopher;

The making of the MICRO, A History of the Computer; Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, London 1981; ISBN 0-442-22240-8; 115pp


CP/M Het operating System voor microcomputers. Een gids voor zelfstudie; 1982; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90 6233 062 2

FINSTER, Reinhard; HEUVEL, Gerd van den

Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm; 1990; Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH Reinbek bei Hamburg; ISBN 90-5121-337-9


Bits & Bytes: micro- en personal- computers voor midden- en kleinbedrijf; 1983; New American library; New York; ISBN 90-6449-027-9; translated from English


De weg die voor ons ligt; 1995 J. M. Meulenhoff; Amsterdam; ISBN 90 290 51396; translated from: The road ahead

GIBSON, Steve;

A passion for technology: Techtalk Anthology, Gibson Research Corporation, Aliso Viejo, Ca. USA,

1987-90; ISBN 1-880814-86-2; 25pp + cumulative index
1987; ISBN 1-880814-87-0; 52pp
1988; ISBN 1-880814-88-9; 55pp
1989; ISBN 1-880814-89-7; 55pp
1990; ISBN 1-880814-90-0; 52pp

A collection of articles published by Steve Gibson in InfoWorld magazine. Explaining how things work, what's why and how. Very crisp no nonsense articles in none technical language aimed at the general reader in computing; with lots of illustrations.


Licht uit, computer aan!; 1987; Novella Uitgeverij; Amersfoort; ISBN 90 6806 040 6


Genetic algorithms in search, optimization and machine learning; 1989; Addison - Wesley Publishing Company, Inc; ISBN 0-201-15767-5


HyperCard Compleet, Academic Service, Postbus 81, 2870 AB Schoonhoven; 1989; ISBN 90-6233-398-2;pp 972
translated from: The Complete HyperCard handbook; Bantambooks; 1987

GRAF, Joachim

De computerwetten van Murphy; 1992; Uitgeverij Lannoo; Tielt; Belgium; ISBN 90 209 2071 5; translated from: Murphys Computergesetze; or: Wie das Gesetz, dass alles, was schief gehen kann, auch schief geht, durch den Computer optimiert wird


Usborne Guide to Computer and video games, how to work and how to win; 1982; Usborne Publishing Ltd; 20 Garrick Street; London WC2E 9BJ; England; ISBN 0 72701 718 7

hackers painters

Hackers and Painters

A little boring, far from a page turner, but otherwise entertaining book that let you rethink that nerds are a creative species but that creative people aren't necessarily nerds. Programming goes beyond a profession, it is a devotion.

O'Reilly, 2004, ISBN 596 00662 4



Microcomputer Power, Guide to Systems Applications; 1981 Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers; USA; ISBN 0-697-09952-0

GROFF, James R.; WEINBERG, Paul N.;

Understanding UNIX: A Conceptual Guide; QUE corp.; Carmel In, USA; ISBN 0-88022-343-X, 2nd ed.


Hacktic 2 2 / 1989
Hacktic 3 3 / 1989
Hacktic 4 4 / 1989
Hacktic 7 7 / 1989
Hacktic 8 8 / 1990
Hacktic 9/10 9-10 / 1990
Hacktic 11/12 11-12 / 1990
Hacktic 13 13 / 1989
Hacktic 14/15 14-15 / 1991
Hacktic 16/17 16-17 / 1992
Hacktic 18/19 18-19 / 1992
Hacktic 20/21 20-21 / 1993
Hacktic 22/23 22-23 / 1993
Hacktic 24/25 24-25 / 1994

An irregularly periodical of the Dutch Hackers movement; giving all possible tips and tricks to hack the Dutch telephone system. Ironically their organization was bought after they went legal by the same company they tried to hack: KPN

HAEFTEN, J. F. van;

Innovatie, Innovatieve processen en ideeŽn op het gebied van automatisering manifesteren zich in de moderne samenleving; Amsterdam july 1986; IBM Nederland NV, Johan Huizingalaan 265, 1066AP Amsterdam, ref no: G 514-5691;pp 224 (Dutch)

Innovation and innovative processes and ideas in the field of automation manifest themselves in the modern society.

HAGEN-STAM, ten (publishers)

Automatiseringsgids (CD); 1994 - 1996

Publication on CD from the weekly magazine, language is Dutch.

HAHN, Harley; STOUT, Rick

The Internet Complete Reference; 1994; Osborne McGraw-Hill; Berkeley; California 94710; USA; ISBN 0-07-881980-6


R.I.P. Commodore 1954-1994, in: Byte, august 1994, p 252

HALLY, Mike;

Electronic Brains; Stories from the dawn of the computer age; Granta Publications; ISBN 1 86207663 4; 2005; pp 274 hardcover

This one is a must read! Written in a very easy to digest style. A compilation of interviews with individuals involved with the early big irons. Added are some portraits and archive material.


Compact Disc, Techniek van een nieuw medium, 1987; Le Compact Disc, 1984, ETSF, Paris; ISBN 90-201-2057-3 D/1987/0108/195; translated by Autronic, Blaricum, Holland

HASHAGEN, Ulf; Reinhard Keil-Slavik; Arthur Norberg (editors)

History of computing: software issues; International conference on the history of computing, ICHC 2000, Heinz Nixdorf Museumsforum, Paderborn, germany; Springer Verlag Berlin 2002; ISBN 3-540-42664-7;pp283

The book is based on the proceedings of the conference held in 2000; it deals with software issues in terms of Science, Engineering, Dependable artifacts, Labor processes and Economic activities in historical perspectives. The editors have enhanced the proceedings with this book by careful editing of the papers presented.

HERIK,H. J. van den

Computerschaak, schaakwereld en kunstmatige intelligentie; 1983; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90 62 33 093 2


SDM for Technical Information Systems; 1988; Pandata BV; Rijswijk; ISBN 90 71996 11 5

HILTZIK, michael;

Dealers of Lightning, Xerox Parc and the dawn of the computer age; 1999; Harper Collins Publishers Inc.; 10 East 3rd Street New York, NY 10022 USA; ISBN 0 88730 819 0; 448PP hardcover 1st print

A story well told about the rise of the Palo Alto center of Rank Xerox, some historical facts are set straight. Based on interviews of still living persons that were involved in the center.


Code Breakers, The inside story of Bletchley Park


Mapping the History of Computing - Software Issues, conference proceedings, 2000; Heinz Nixdorf Forum, Paderborn

Museumsfuhrer; 1997; Heinz Nixdorf Forum, Paderborn; ISBN 3-9805757-0-5

Museum Guide; 1999;Heinz Nixdorf Forum, Paderborn; ISBN 3-9805757-1-3

HODGES., Andrew

Alan Turing, the enigma;  Vintage, 29 Vaxhall Bridge road, London SW1V 25A, UK; 1983; 386pp paperback

Biography on Alan Turing, apart from Turings life and wanderings also a very detailed account of Turing's dealings with the various electronic computers he dealt with during and after world war II


Minipas: Een eerste stap in de programmeerwereld: 1. De programmeertaal; 1987; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 6233 247 1


Minipas: Een eerste stap in de programmeerwereld: 2. Venster op de omgeving; 1988; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90-6233-277-3

Minipas, a first step in the world of programming


IBM ...yesterday and today, 1984; International Business Machine Corporation Armonk, NY 10504, USA. Ref.no G520-3140-3


Vanuit een glazen huis naar bijna elke werkplek, IBM 1984 (from the English version)


Innovation in Computer Technology, january 1987; International Business Machine Corporation Armonk, NY 10504, USA. Ref.no. G505-0071-01


IBM Innovation, july 1987; International Business Machine Corporation Armonk, NY 10504, USA. Ref.no. G505-0068


Innovatie; July 1986; Amsterdam

Ifrah, Georges;

The universal history of computing; 2001; John Wiley & sons, Inc, 605 3rd av, New York, NY 10158-0012; info@wiley.com; ISBN 0-471-44147-3

translated by: Harding, E.F.; Wood, S; Monk, I; Clegg, E; Waldman., G.

Original title: "Histoire universelle des chiffres", 1981, 1994, editions Robert Laffont S.A. Paris, France

This book starts with the early history of how numbers came into existence and how the modern numerical systems migrated over the world, a bit dreary but need to know if you want to understand the development of computing at all. The book then continues with a description of early calculators ending with computers like the EDVAC. The contents in this book closely joins to the books normally written on this subject and looks with an a-typical perspective towards computers and their makers. Ifrah keeps strictly to his definition of computing and analytical automata and only writes about a computer if the machine is a true computer and not an advanced analytical engine.
Though it is a pity that the translators were not able to translate this aspect of Ifrah's book in full, partly due to the limitations of English, as they state. And dear translators: "Pays Bas" does not mean lower countries but just: "the Netherlands" or as it is otherwise known: "Holland". ;=)

It is recommended that you read this book and "the History of modern computing" of Paul E. Ceruzzi, you will then have a fairly complete picture of the history of computing.


TRS-80 BASIC voor geode, een gids voor zelfstudie; 1982; Academic Service; Den Haag; ISBN 90-6233-089-4; translated from: More TRS-80 BASIC - A Self Teaching Guide

ISO; ISO 6373-1984 (E),

Dataprocessing - Programming Languages - Minimal BASIC


IT Service management een introductie; 2000; ITSMF; Zeewolde; ISBN 90-804928-1-7

JAMES, Mike;

BASIC Artificial Intelligence; [Butterworths BASIC series] London - 1986; Butterworth & Co (Publishers) Ltd; ISBN 0-408-01820-8;


De geheime oorlog (from: The Secret War); Hoofdstuk 6 : Enigma;pp 305-351; L.J. Veen, Ede; ISBN 90 204 3303 2

JOYCE, Edward J.

Modula - 2 ( computer program language); 1985; Edward J. Joyce; ISBN 0-201-11587-5

KERF lic., J. L. de;

De Geschiedenis van de automatische digitale rekenmachine: van ABACUS naar Computer.; Het ingenieursblad volume 46 issue 1, januari 16, 1977; reprint: Informatie, volume 19 issue 10, Amsterdam october 1977,pp 546-630 (Dutch)

KERLER, Christine

Het computerboek voor vrouwen: introductie in de (nu nog) mannenwereld van de microcomputers; 1986; B.V. W. J. Thieme & Cie; Zutphen; ISBN 90 03 98950 8; translated from: Das Computerbuch fur Frauen


De ziel van de nieuwe machine; 1987; Uitgeverij L. J. Veen BV.; Utrecht / Antwerpen; ISBN 90 204 2716 4; translated from: The soul of a new machine

KIDWELL, Peggy A.; Ceruzzi, Paul E.

Landmarks in Digital Computing, A Smithsonian Pictorial History; 1994; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA; ISBN 1-56098-311-6; 148pp

A collection of snap shots through IT history, with many pictures and schetches, vocabulary, extensive bibliography and picture service.


The Whole Internet, user's guide and catalog; 1992; O'Reilly & Associates inc., 103 Morrisstreet Suite A, Sebastopol, CA 95472, USA; ISBN 1-56592-025-2; 376pp

KROLL, Gerrit

60,000 uur; 1998; Querido, Amsterdam, NL; ISBN 90-214-7261 9/ NUGI 300; 114pp

An autobiographic novelle on his quest of 60,000 hours to find a way to map a complex information system for NAM (national gas company in the Netherlands)


Kunstmatige Intelligentie op uw computer; 1981; John Krutch; ISBN 90 201 1771 8; translated from: Experiments in Artificial Intelligence for small computers

KURZWEIL, Raymond;

The Age of Intelligent Machines; Cambridge USA 1990; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; ISBN 0-262-11121-7, 565pp


Gegevensmodellen; 1987; Kluwer; Deventer; ISBN 90 267 1178 6

LAAR, G. C. J. van

De computer: Een nieuwe start; 1989; Words en Works; IJsselstein; ISBN 90 213 0512 7


Gegevensanalyse; 1981; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 6233 176 9


The Pegassus Story, a history of a vintage British Computer; London 2000; Science Museum; Exhibition Road, London SW7 2DD, UK; ISBN 1 900747 40 5; 58pp

A very detailed narration of the production and the Pegassus installations placed in context with other contemporary computers.

LAQUEY, Tracey; RYER, Jean C.;

The INTERNET COMPANION: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking; 4th printing; Reading Ma USA; Addison Wesley; ISBN0-201-62224-6; 196pp


BOTS, The origin of new species; 1997; Penguin group, 375 Hudsonstreet, New York, NY 10014, USA; ISBN 0-1402.7566 5 (pbk)

The saga of cyberspace's software robots. Well written book on when bots were just reaching their puberty. A second edition should update much on contemporary bots.

LEVY, Steven
crypto levy

Crypto, how the code rebels beat the government saving privacy in the digital age; Penguin group, 375 Hudsonstreet, New York, NY 10014, USA; ISBN 0-1402.4432 8 (pbk)

A well documented and excellently written book on the Fort Meade establishment contra the freedom fighters concerning the right on using the strongest available cryptography to protect one's privacy or trade secrets. Reads like a novel, at least for those geeky enough.

hackers levy

Hackers, heroes of the computer revolution; Penguin group, 375 Hudsonstreet, New York, NY 10014, USA; ISBN 0-14100015 1 (pbk) 455pp

In the beginning a hacker was not a criminal but a professional making things work. This book is about them. Narratively written and a must have for anyone interested in the origins of computer pioneers.


Computers zoeken werk. Hoe computers werken in de moderne economie, wetenschap en techniek; 1967; N.V. Kluwer; Deventer; translated by TH. J. M. Hille


De geschiedenis van rekentuig en rekenkunde; 1987;
Grepen uit de geschiedenis van de automatisering; Kluwer bedrijfswetenschappen, Deventer; 1e druk; 1992; 151pp; ISBN 90-267-1716-4 (Dutch)

History of calculators and arithmetic, Dutch


Fortran V; 1981; Kluwer Technische Boeken bv; Deventer; ISBN 90 201 1331 3; translated by: P.C. den Heijer

LUNDELLl, Allan;

Virus!, Contemporary books, Chicago; 1989; ISBN 0809244373

While this book is now seriously showing its age, it contains a large amount of information about the development of virus technology.

For anybody interested in learning on the origin's of viri then this is a good starting point



Schematechnieken voor systeemanalisten en programmeurs, een basis voor automatisering; 1987; Prentice Hall; Englewood Cliffs, NJ; ISBN 90-6233-578-0;

translated from: Recommended diagramming standards for analysts and programmers: a basis for automation


Omgaan met informatie; 1984; Wolters-Noordhoff BV; Groningen; The Netherlands; ISBN 90 01 57460 2


Aquarius, Guide to home computing: All you need to know about using your Aquarius Home Computer System


Gegevensanalyse en - Structuren; 1ed Deventer; KLUWER 1987 151pp; ISBN 90-267-1167-0 (Dutch)


Ainsi naquit l'informatique; 1981; Bordas Paris;
Translated by J. Howlett: The Massechussets Institute of Technology; 1984; The computer comes of age / The people, the hardware, and the software; ISBN 0 262 13194 3

MORRISON, Phillip and MORRISON, Emily eds.

CHARLES BABBAGE, on the principles of the calculator and other seminal writings by Charles Babbage and others.; 1961; Dover publications, INC ; New York; USA; ISBN 0 486 24691 4

MOSCHOVITIS, Christos J.P., Hilary Poole, Tami Schuyler, Theresa M. Senft;

History of the internet, A Chronology, 1843 to the present (1999); ABC-CLIO, Inc., 130 Cremona Drive, P.O.Box 1911, Santa Barbera, California, 93116-1911, USA; ISBN 1-57607-192-8

Chronological narrative of the origins of the Internet, many examples of other milestones are given

MURRAY, Charles J.,

The Supermen; the story of Seymour Cray and the technical wizards behind the supercomputer; John Wiley & Sons Inc., 605 3rd ave. New York, NY 10158-0012, USA; ISBN 0-471-04885-2; 232pp bibliography, notes and index

An easy to read and well written book, a chronological narrative of the origins of the first supercomputers.


The Personal Computer Book; 1982; Prelude Press, Los Angeles
Translated by Toon Pieterse; Het grote micro computerboek; 1984,; L.J. Veen BV Utrecht/Antwerpen


Bouw zelf een expertsysteem in BASIC; 1983; Sigma Technical Press; Wilmslow; ISBN 90-6233-167-X;

translated from: artificial intelligence for the aspering microcomputer


Digitaal leven; 1995; Prometheus; Amsterdam; ISBN 90 5333 378 9; translated from: Being Digital

NEAVE, Malcolm

Computer Projects; 1985; Piper Books Ltd; 18 - 21 Cavaye Place; London SW10 9PG; ISBN 0 330 28517 3

NIJHOLT, Anton; Ende, Jan van den

Geschiedenis van de rekenkust, van Kerfstok tot computer; Academic Service, Schoonhoven; 1994; ISBN 90 395 0048 7 (Dutch)


NEN 1422, Automatische gegevensverwerking, Programma structuurdiagrammen (PSD); november 1979 (Dutch)
NPR 3592, Automatische Informatieverwerking. Symbolen voor Stroomschema's; 1975; equivalent to ISO 2636 (Dutch)

NORMAN, Adrian R. D.

Computer Insecurity; 1983; Chapman and Hall, New York; NY 10017; USA; ISBN 0 412 22310 4

OOST, E van; Aalberts, G; Ende, J. van den; Lintsen, H.W

De opkomst van de informatie technologie in Nederland (The rise of information technology in the Netherlands);pp208; Stichting Historie der Techniek; Eindhoven, Netherlands; 1998; ISBN 90-73192-21-8

A narrative on the successes of Dutch designed computers that where in use at various government institutions.


De pijl van zeno; 1991; Uitgeverij De Fontein bv; Baarn; ISBN 90 261 0420 6

OSBORN, Adam; DONAHUE, Carroll S.

PET/CBM personal computer guide, second edition; 1980; McGraw-Hill, Inc; 630 Bancroft Way; Berkeley; California 94710; USA; ISBN 0-931988-55-1


Informatie-industrie in de jaren tachtig; Kluwer BV; 1980; ISBN 90 267 0743 6

The Information industry during the 1980's in the Netherlands


H P way: How Bill Hewlett and I Built our Company; may 1995; Harpers Busn; ISBN 0 88730 7437 7
Book about the rise of HP company and its founders, written by one of its founders.


The Dream Machine, exploring the computer age; 1991; BBC Books, Woodlands, 80 Woodlane, London W120TT; ISBN 0 563 36221 9; 208pp


Computing Science; Edward Arnold (publishers) Ltd. 41 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3DQ; 1980; ISBN 0-7131-2538-1; 397pp


Leerboek MG.2: Systemen en toepassingen; 1988; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 6233 352 4;

Oefenboek MG.2: Systemen en toepassingen; 1989; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 6233 473 3

Systems and their applications, course books informatics


Van telraam tot Microcomputer; Armand Haye, Amsterdam; 1984; ISBN 90-6834-005-0

From counting board to microcomputer, Dutch, general history on computing

PBNA, Koninklijke;

Woordenboek Automatisering;PBNA; 1987 (Dutch)


Van Telraam tot supercomputer, leervak 44.74 les 2 (Dutch)


Microthermen: 1024 kernbegrippen voor de micro-computer gebruiker; 1988; PBNA (Dutch); ISBN 90-6897-002-X

PEN, Jan

Kijk, economie; 1979; Het Spectrum, Utrecht/Antwerpen; ISBN 90 274 9242 5

Personal Computer World;

15 Years of PCW; 1993; p 309-369

Personal Computer Magazine

PMC Processoren Poster; 1993; Personal Computer Magazine


Micro-elektronica: Spil van een industriele revolutie?; 1979; N.V. Philip's Gloeilampenfabrieken

Velo Handheld PC; 1997; Philips electronics

PLEKKER, Mark; et al

30 jaar Computable; VNU Business Publications BV; Amsterdam


Chronology of Personal Computers; (updated from) 1995-2001; kpolsson@islandnet.com; available from various WWW sites in plain text and html format.

Ken's pages: http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/comphist/

An almost yearly electronically published research-paper / compilation on the history of computers, mainly micro's. Main sources used by Ken Polsson are BYTE, INFOWORLD, PC MAGAZINE, PC WORLD, RUN, and PC COMPUTING. Paper is setup in year and month format; meticulous source annotations


Using your IBM personal computer; 1983; Howard W. Sams & Co, Inc; Indiapolis; Indiana 46268; USA; ISBN 0-672-22000-8

PRATT, Vernon;

Thinking Machines: The evolution of Artificial Intelligence, 1987; Basil Blackwell ltd, 108 Cowley road, Oxford OX4 IJF, UK; ISBN 0-631-14953-8 [527.8 PRATT]; 254pp


Software Engineering, A Beginner's Guide; 1988; McGraw-Hill, Inc; USA; ISBN 0-07-050790-2


Psion product guide; June 1995; Psion Nederland bv; Hoofddorp

RAATS, J. J.; BURGER, M. D. J.; LEEUWE L. J. A. van

Leerboek basiskennis informatica; 1985; Educaboek BV; Culemborg; The Netherlands; ISBN 90 11 009010

RALSTON, Anthony ed. ; MEEK, Chester L. asst. eds.; et al.;

Encyclopedia of Computer Science, 1976;pp 1522; Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA; ISBN 0-442-80321-4

A general encyclopedia of the 1970's state of the art.


The naked Computer, 1983, 1984; Arlington Books (Publishers) LTD, 3 Clifford Street Mayfair, London W1, England; ISBN 0 85140 644 0; 335pp .


The naked PC; PC World, January 1988, pp67-75


Het microcomputer handboek; 1983; Dorling Kindersley Limited; London; ISBN 90 201 1756 4;

translated from: The personal computer handbook


Grondslagen van het ontwikkelen van informatiesystemen; 1988; Het Glazen Oog; Venlo-Vinkeveen; ISBN 90 72 446 01 1

SCHOT, J.W. et al.;

Techniek in Nederland in de twintigste eeuw (Technology in the Netherlands in the twentieth century); Stichting History der Techniek; Eindhoven, the Netherlands; Walburg Press; ISBN 90-5730-036-2

An elaborate history on developments in general technology and automation in the Netherlands.

SCOTT, Foresmann;

Complete turbo pascal, Glenview, Ill. etc. 1985; ISBN 90-6233-237-4


Handboek voor MZ-800 gebruikers

SHASHA, Dennis E.; LAZERE, Cathy A.

Out of their minds; 1998; Dennis E. Shasha and Cathy A. Lazere; ISBN 0-387-98269-8


Alles over SHARP organizers; 1992; Kluwer; Deventer; ISBN 90 201 2733 0


Computer in de negentiger jaren; translated from: Towards fifth- generation computers; The National Computing Centre, Manchester, England; 1983; ISBN 90-6233-136-X

SOBEL, Robert

IBM, Marktleider, ook in de toekomst...; 1986; A. W. Bruna & Zoon; ISBN 90 229 5496 X; translated from: IBM and the Gobal Challenge


Murphy can be wrong; Software Control Nederland BV; Zaltbommel


Basiscursus Delphi; 1995; Academic Sevice; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 395 0250 1

Basiscursus Delphi 2; 1996; Academic Sevice; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90 395 0526 8

STOLL, Clifford

The Cuckoo's Egg; 1991; Pan Books LTD; Cavaye Place; London SW 10 9PG; ISBN 0 330 31742 3


Bytes en Bulderen;1994; Beaumont BV; Alphen aan den Rijn

SWADE, Doron;

Charles Babbage and his calculating machines; 1991;pp 48; Science Museum, Exhibition road, London SW7 2DD, UK; ISBN 0-901805-45-9

A very nice pictorial on the Difference and Analytical machine; information is consice and informative

TechKnology, Inc.

The History of the Computer; 1992;pp 22; TechKnology educational products, 15312 Charlotte avenue, San jose, CA 95124, 408-377-2051, USA

Booklet on history of computers, chronology and short stories on invention of computers. (english)


China, Land of discovery and invention.; ref: Volkskrant, april 2, 1988, p31; Amsterdam

Article on how scientific knowledge can get lost (dutch)


Technology and Society, Origin of Modern Calculating Machines; 1972 2ed.; ARNO PRESS, a New York Times Company; USA; ISBN 0 405 04730 4


Understanding Computers, Time Life Series, Roberta Conlan series director, 1985, 4th revised ed 1986, Alexandria, Verginia; ISBN 0 8094 5654 0, 14 Vols.

Book series from 1989 which are dealing in general terms with the subject, very nice graphics and pictures of the principles of computing.

TIME Magazine

Time magazine, technology sections; www.timeeurope.com; Time Warner Publishing co. Amsterdam Netherlands

Covers and clippings from the magazine since the 1980's have found their way to our digital reference library.


Time magazine; see periodicals page;

TITULAER, Chriet; KORT, Niek de

Kantoor van de toekomst; 1991; Chriet Titulaer Produkties bv; Houten; ISBN 90 274 3027 6

Office of the future, a continuing project of both private companies and government to stimulate research and innovation


History of the Personal Computer - From Altair to IBM, A History of the PC Revolution; WorldComm Press, 65 Macedonia Road, Alexander, NC 28701, 704-252-9515, USA; ISBN 1-56664-023-7;pp 304

An intimate story on how it all began with personal computing; Veit was a member of the "inside crowd" and a pioneer on how to make the PC commercial viable.


MODULA-2, Academic Service, Den Haag, 1986; ISBN 90-6233-212-9;pp 390 (Dutch)

The programming language Modula-2 developed by Niclaus Wirth

VERLAG GmbH, Rowohlt

Het chaos computer boek; 1988; Uitgeverij Balans; Amsterdam; ISBN 90 5018 072 8; translated from: Das chaos computer Buch


Het anti-computer boek; 1992; Mondria uitgevers; Hazerswoude-dorp; ISBN 90 6555 468 8


Sinclair, ZX Spectrum, Basic programming; 1982; Sinclair Research Ltd;25 Willes Road; Cambridge CB1 2AQ; England


Sinclair ZX Spectrum Introduction; 1982; Sinclair Research Limited;25 Willes Road; Cambridge CB1 2AQ; England

VLIET, J. C. van

Software Engineering; 1988; Stenfert Kroese; Leiden/Antwerpen; ISBN 90-207-1646-8


Die Entwicklungs Geschichte des Computers; 1982; VDE-VERLAG GmbH Berlin und Offenbach Bismarckstrasse 33, D1000 Berlin 12; ISBN 3 8007 1267 9;

The History of computers, German

VORST, Henk vd

Parallel rekenen en super computers; 1988; Academic Service; Schoonhoven; ISBN 90-6233-300-1

VUIK, Kees

Vuiks verhandelingen over computers, wetenschap en denken; 1992; Het Spectrum BV; ISBN 90 274 31 23 X

WAARD, H. W. de

Transputers; 1989; Bruna; Utrecht/Deurne/Antwerpen; ISBN 90-229-7845-1

WALDROP, M. Mitchel

The Dream Machine; J.C.R. Licklidder and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal; 2001; Viking; Penguin Puttnam inc, 375 Hudsonstreet, New York, 10014, USA; ISBN 0-670-89976-3; pp502; hardcover


Lessen, de autobiografie van de vader van de tekstverwerker; 1987; Het Spectrum BV; ISBN 90 274 1844 6;

translated from: Lessons, an autobiography


Apple II history; Zonker Software, 2715 N. 112th St., Omaha, NE 68164-3666 USA, 402) 498-0246; 1991; appr.pp 226 (electronic publication)

A series of articles on the history of Apple Computer inc. on floppy. All details as far as they are known by the author are told with emphasis on the Apple II series. Also the birth and uprising of Apple computers inc. in general is part of this history

WILMINK, Jan; Boon, Kasper

Micro computer gids, 3e editie: Leidraad bij de keuze van een micro computer; 1984; Kluwer Technische Boeken BV; Deventer; ISBN 90 201 1633 9

WIRTH, Niklaus

Systematic Programming: An Introduction;1973; Prentice-hall, inc; Englewood Cliffs; New Yersey; ISBN 0-13-880369-2

WOOD, Gaby

Living Dolls, a magical history of the quest for mechanical life; Faber and Faber, 3 Queen square London, WC1N 3AU, UK; 2002, pb 2003; ISBN 0-571-21466-5; pp 278

A well written book on three centuries of automations, very detailed and one can not help to notice the fundamental under laying research for this book. Extensive bibliography and notes with each chapter. There could have been some more illustrations though. However after three chapters Wood looses herself into the social and economical ramifications of the automations and not so much in detail on the automations themselves. A pity.

WUSTER, Christian;

Computers, an illustrated history; Taschen, Hollenzernring 53, D-50672 Koeln; D; ISBN 3-8228-1293-5;pp 335; translated from German

A series of short narratives by different authors, their experience with the use of computers ranging from mainframes to pc's. A Timeline reflecting the different computer architectures. Very well illustrated. A good book for starters in computing history.


Gestructureerde Analyse; 1989; Prentice Hall; London; ISBN 90 6233 559 4;

translated from: Modern Structured Analys

ZAKS, Rodnay

Introduction to Pascal: Including Turbo Pascal; 1986; SYBEX, Inc; 2344 Sixth Street; Berkeley CA 94710; USA; ISBN 0-89588-319-8

ZIENTARA, Maguerite;

The History of Computing, A bibliographical portrait of the visionaries who shaped the destiny of the computer industry; 1981; CW Communications Inc., 375 Cochituate rd., Box 880, Framingham, Mass. 01701 USA



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